The Effect of Cell Phone Usage on Semen Quality and Fertility Among Jordanian Males, Middle East Fertility Society Journal (2017); Nahla Al-Bayyari

Time using wireless phones was significantly associated with abnormal sperm morphology. Distance from telecommunication towers was significantly associated with low sperm volume. Time spent sending and receiving text messages was significantly associated with low sperm count, and time carrying a mobile phone the pant pocket was significantly associated with low sperm motility.

Cell Phone Alters Oxidative Stress and Impairs Testicular Function of Male Wistar Rats, Journal of Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility (2017); Oyewopo, Olaniyi, Oyewopo, and Jimoh

Microscopic examinations of spermatozoa showed low sperm count, altered sperm morphology, altered cross section͕ lumen and germinal epithelia diameter, and abnormal levels of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase, which are markers of reactive oxygen species. In addition sera levels of male sex hormones (follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone) significantly decreased after exposure.

The Effect of Smartphone's Radiation Frequency and Exposure Duration on NADPH Oxidase 5 (NOX5) Level in Sperm Parameters, Sains Malaysiana (2017); Norazurashima Jamaludin, Syawal Shafie Abdul Razak, Farah Hanan, Fathihah Jaffar, Siti Fatimah Ibrahim, Khairul Osman

Low frequency microwaves from cell phones can decrease sperm concentration and viability, and increase DNA damage through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. NOX5 pathway has been proven to be the likely pathway of ROS induced by radiation.

Quantitative Changes in Testicular Structure and Function in Rats Exposed to Mobile Phone Radiation, Andrologia (2017); Murat Cetkin, Nese Kizilkan, C. Demirel,  H. Erbağcı, and S. Erkilic

In the electromagnetic radiation exposed groups, the testis weight and volume, volume fraction of tubular tissue, mean tubular and germinal tissue volume, seminiferous tubule diameter and germinal epithelium height were all significantly lower. The mean volume fraction of interstitial tissue and cortisol levels were significantly higher.

1950MHz Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation Inhibits Testosterone Secretion of Mouse Leydig Cells, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2017); Yan-Yun Lin, Tao Wu, Jun-Ye Liu, Peng Gao, Kang-Chu Li, Qi-Yan Guo, Meng Yuan, Hai-Yang Lang, Li-Hua Zeng,  and Guo-Zhen Guo

After 24 hours of exposure, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, secretion capacity of testosterone, and P450scc mRNA levels were all reduced in the Leydig cells of the irradiated. 

Radiofrequency Radiation (RFR, 900 MHz) Induced DNA Damage and Cell Cycle Arrest in Testicular Germ Cells in Swiss Albino Mice, Toxicology and Industrial Health (2016), Pandey, Giri, Das, Upadhaya; Molecular Cytogenetic Laboratory, Department of Life Science and Bioinformatics, Assam University, Silchar, Assam, India

Exposure caused depolarization of mitochondrial membranes resulting in destabilized cellular redox homeostasis. Statistically significant increases in the damage index of germ cells and sperm head defects, a 2.5-fold increase in spermatogonial populations with significant decreases in spermatids, an almost fourfold reduction in spermatogonia to spermatid turnover, and three times reduction in primary spermatocyte to spermatid turnover was found, indicating arrest in the premeiotic stage of spermatogenesis, resulting in loss of post-meiotic germ cells and low sperm counts. Histological alterations such as sloughing of immature germ cells into the seminiferous tubule lumen, epithelium depletion and maturation arrest were also observed. However, all these changes showed recovery following the post-exposure period indicating that the adverse effects of RFR although detrimental, are reversible.

Effects of cell phone use on semen parameters: Results from the MARHCS cohort study in Chongqing, China, Environment International (2016); Zhang G, Yan H, Chen Q, Liu K, Ling X, Sun L, Zhou N, Wang Z, Zou P, Wang X, Tan L, Cui Z, Zhou Z, Liu J, Ao L, Cao

Internet use via cellular networks was associated with decreased sperm concentration, total sperm counts, and decreased semen volume. Multivariate analyses were used to adjust for the effects of potential confounders, and significant negative associations between internet use and semen parameters remained.

The Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Sperm Function, Reproduction (2016); Houston BJ, Nixon B, King BV, De Iuliis GN, Aitken RJ

Among a total of 27 studies investigating the effects of radiation on the male reproductive system, negative consequences of exposure were reported in 21. Within these 21 studies, 11 of the 15 that investigated sperm motility reported significant declines, 7 of 7 that measured the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) documented elevated levels, and 4 of 5 studies that probed for DNA damage highlighted increased damage.

Comparison of the Genotoxic Effects Induced by 50 Hz Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields in GC-2 Cells, Radiation Research: Official Journal of the Radiation Research Society (2015); Duan W, Liu C, Zhang L, He M, Xu S, Chen C, Pi H, Gao P, Zhang Y, Zhong M, Yu Z, Zhou Z

Exposure resulted in a significant increase of DNA strand breaks. We also observed that RF-EMF exposure significantly induced oxidative DNA base damage.

Impact of mobile phone radiation on the quality and DNA methylation of human sperm in vitro (2015); Wang D, Li B, Liu Y, Ma YF, Chen SQ, Sun HJ, Dong J, Ma XH, Zhou J, Wang XH.

The radiation group showed significantly decreased progressive sperm motility and sperm viability, and increased sperm head defects. The early apoptosis rate of sperm cells was also remarkably higher in the radiation group. 

Effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) Exposure on Apoptosis, Sperm Parameters and Testicular Histomorphometry in Rats: A Time Course Study (2015); Saeed Shokri, Aiob Soltani, M. Kazemi, Farshid Babapoor Mofrad

Radiation exposure decreased sperm parameters in a time dependent pattern, the number of apoptosis-positive cells and caspase-3 activity also increased in the seminiferous tubules, and the seminal vesicle weight reduced significantly in the exposure groups.

Electromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz induces sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 signaling pathways in rats (2015); Qi Liu, Tianlei Si, Xiaoyun Xu, Fuqiang Liang, Lufeng Wang, and Siyi Pan

The percentage of apoptotic sperm cells in the exposure group was significantly increased (91.42%). Moreover, the Reactive Oxygen Species concentration in the group also increased 46.21%, while the Total Antioxidant Capacity decreased 28.01%. The radiated group also showed dramatically decreased protein and mRNA expression of bcl-2 and increased bax, cytochrome c, and capase-3.